Dr Eric Schwitzgebel asks an interesting question on his blog The Splintered Mind about what our moral duties to AI’s might be. Do we owe them any at all or are we free to treat them as we wish? Some of you may remember Eric from his article in Sci Phi Journal: Issue #3 and his article “The Tyrants Headache”.
You might think: Our moral duties to them would be similar to our moral duties to natural humans beings. A reasonable default view, perhaps. If morality is about maximizing happiness (a common consequentialist view), these beings ought to deserve consideration as loci of happiness. If morality is about respecting the autonomy of rational agents (a common deontological view), these beings ought to deserve consideration as fellow rational agents.
One might argue that our moral duties to such beings would be less. For example, you might support the traditional Confucian ideal of “graded love”, in which our moral duties are greatest for those closest to us (our immediate family) and decline with distance, in some sense of “distance”: You owe less moral consideration to neighbors than to family, less to fellow-citizens than to neighbors, less to citizens of another country than to citizens of your own country — and still less, presumably, to beings who are not even of your own species. On this view, if we encountered space aliens who were objectively comparable to us in moral worth from some neutral point of view, we might still be justified in favoring our own species, just because it is our own species. And artificial intelligences might properly be considered a different species in this respect. Showing equal concern for an alien or artificial species, including possibly sacrificing humanity for the good of that other species, might constitute an morally odious disloyalty to one’s kind. Go, Team Human?
Another reason to think our moral duties might be less, or more, involves emphasizing that we would be the creators of these beings. Our god-like relationship to them might be especially vivid if the AIs exist in simulated environments controlled by us rather than as ordinarily embodied robots, but even in the robot case we would presumably be responsible for their existence and design parameters.
One might think that if these beings owe their existence and natures to us, they should be thankful to us as long as they have lives worth living, even if we don’t treat them especially well. Suppose I create a Heaven and a Hell, with AIs I can transfer between the two locations. In Heaven, they experience intense pleasure (perhaps from playing harps, which I have designed them to intensely enjoy). In Hell, I torture them. As I transfer Job, say, from Heaven to Hell, he complains: “What kind of cruel god are you? You have no right to torture me!” Suppose I reply: “You have been in Heaven, and you will be in Heaven again, and your pleasures there are sufficient to make your life as a whole worth living. In every moment, you owe your very life to me — to my choice to expend my valuable resources instantiating you as an artificial being — so you have no grounds for complaint!” Maybe, even, I wouldn’t have bothered to create such beings unless I could play around with them in the Torture Chamber, so their very existence is contingent upon their being tortured. All I owe such beings, perhaps, is that their lives as a whole be better than non-existence.